Kyphoplasty is a treatment for compression fractures of the vertebrae. This type of fracture is common when there is osteoporosis, or weakening of the bone, which is more common in elderly women. It can also be due to trauma.

Compression fractures can cause pain over the affected level and can progress over time, causing deformity to the natural curvature of the spine. The procedure involves tapping into the compressed vertebral body, moving the bony debris out of the way with a balloon, and filling the fracture with cement. Pain relief after this procedure is usually almost instantaneous.